Place du Carrousel

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La place du Carrousel è una piazza di Parigi sita ad occidente del palazzo del Louvre. Deve il suo nome ad una esibizione di equitazione militare, svoltasi in questo luogo al tempo di Luigi XIV il 7 giugno 1662, in occasione della nascita di suo figlio Luigi, il Gran Delfino. Si innesta sull‘avenue du Général-Lemonnier.

L’Arco di Trionfo del Carrousel domina oggi questo luogo, a seguito della demolizione del Palazzo delle Tuileries nel 1883. L’Arco di Trionfo del Carrousel venne edificato fra il 1806 e il 1808 come ingresso d’onore al Palazzo delle Tuileries. Fra l’arco di trionfo e l’ingresso del Museo del Louvre si trovano due statue di Antoine-François Gérard, L’Histoire e La France Victorieuse.

Altri progetti

Adam Beck

Sir Adam Beck (June 20, 1857 – August 15, 1925) was a politician and hydroelectricity advocate who founded the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario.

Beck was born in Baden, Upper Canada (now Ontario) to German immigrants, Jacob Beck and Charlotte Hespeler. He attended school at the Rockwood Academy in Rockwood, Ontario. As a teenager he worked in his father’s foundry, and later established a cigar-box manufacturing company in Galt (now Cambridge, Ontario) with his brother William. In 1885 he moved the company to London, Ontario, where it quickly flourished and established Beck as a wealthy and influential civic leader.

He was also involved in horse breeding and racing, and at a horse show in 1897 he met Lilian Ottaway of Hamilton daughter of Cuthbert Ottaway and Marion Stinson. Lilian’s mother, by then Marion Crerar, objected to their 21-year age difference – she was 19 and he 40 – as well as Beck’s love of horse racing, which they felt would keep him away from home. Nevertheless, they were married on September 7, 1898. Beck named their London mansion Headley, after Lilian’s parents‘ home in Surrey, England. In addition to horse breeding, for which he won numerous prizes, Beck was also associated with tennis and lawn bowling.

Also in 1898, Beck ran for provincial legislature for the first time, but lost. In 1900, Beck founded the London Health Association, which would later develop into the University and Victoria Hospitals. In 1902, he was elected mayor of London and a few months later was elected to the Ontario legislature as the Conservative member from the London riding. He was re-elected mayor in 1903 and 1904 while simultaneously serving as a member of the provincial legislature (which is no longer permitted). Already a wealthy man, he donated his salary to charity while serving as mayor. In 1905, he was appointed minister without portfolio in the government of premier Sir James P. Whitney.

Beck was an early and prominent advocate of publicly owned electricity grids, opposing the privately owned companies who he felt did not adequately serve the needs of the public. With the slogan „Power at Cost“ and in Latin, „dona naturae pro populo sunt“ („the gifts of nature are for the public“), he convinced Premier Whitney to create a board of enquiry on the matter, with him as chairman. The enquiry suggested creating a municipally owned hydroelectric system, funded by the provincial government, and using water from Niagara Falls and other Ontario lakes and rivers. In 1906 Whitney appointed Beck the first chairman of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission. He was knighted by King George V in 1914 for his promotion of electricity and development of transmission lines.

In 1915, he tried to introduce a network of interurban railways, known provincially as radials (long-distance trolleys) in Ontario under public ownership, but this plan had to be put on hold during World War I. In the 1919 post-war election, Beck lost his seat to Hugh Stevenson as the United Farmers of Ontario swept the Conservatives out of power.

Beck continued to push his railway proposal after World War I, which pitted him against Premier Ernest Drury, with whom he had an antagonistic relationship. In 1920, Drury created a Royal Commission, chaired by Robert Franklin Sutherland, which concluded that the popularity of automobiles had rendered Beck’s proposal obsolete.

During his time in the provincial legislature Beck remained active in London. His daughter Marion, born in 1904, suffered from tuberculosis, but with Beck’s wealth and influence she had access to the best doctors and medicine. Realizing that not everyone could afford such care, in 1910 Beck founded a sanitorium, which was very advanced for its time. The Queen Alexandra Sanitorium, named after Alexandra of Denmark, wife of King Edward VII, was officially opened on April 5 of that year by Governor General Earl Grey. It was later renamed the Beck Memorial Sanitorium. Later still it was renamed the Children’s Psychiatric Research Institute (CPRI). Today the building houses the London Child and Parent Resource Institute. In 1918 Beck also paid fellow Londoner Guy Lombardo to play at Marion’s débutante party.

Lilian Beck died of cancer on October 17, 1921. In 1923 Beck was re-elected to the Ontario legislature, until his own death from anemia in 1925. Former Prime Minister of Canada Arthur Meighen, Ontario premier George Howard Ferguson, and London mayor George Wenige attended his funeral.

The Queenston Chippawa power station (now Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Power Stations), which he helped to create, was renamed after him in 1950. Also named for him were Sir Adam Beck Collegiate Institute, a public secondary school in London which is now home to the Thames Valley District School Board headquarters, an elementary school in Upper Beaches, Toronto, Ontario, and a bilingual elementary school in Etobicoke. Sir Adam Beck Public School was built in his hometown of Baden. In 1990, Headley, the Becks‘ mansion at Richmond and Sydenham streets, was demolished by Sifton Properties Ltd. and replaced with a condominium replica dubbed the Sir Adam Beck Manor. In Toronto, there is a statue of Beck (Adam Beck Memorial), sculpted by Emanuel Hahn, on University Avenue at Queen Street West. It was jointly erected by City of Toronto and the Toronto Hydro-Electric Commission in 1934.

Harbuval-Chamaré

Die Grafen von Harbuval und Chamaré waren ein sehr altes, ursprünglich flandrisches, aus der Grafschaft Artois stammendes Adelsgeschlecht, das lange Zeit der spanischen Krone diente und schließlich in kaiserlich-österreichische Dienste trat.

Die Genealogie dieser uralten Familie, deren Namen Harbuval sich von der ursprünglichen Besitzung Harbuval in der Grafschaft Artois herleitet, begann mit Johann I. von Harbuval, der sich 1112 mit einer Gräfin de la Laine vermählte und das Geschlecht fortpflanzte. Die Nachkommen desselben standen meist in königlich spanischen Kriegsdiensten, und im neunten Glied stammte von ihm Johann Baptist von Harbuval, nachmaliger Baron von Chamaré, der ebenfalls in königlich spanischen Kriegsdiensten war. Dieser ergriff 1555 bei Belagerung der Festung Tauris (gemeint ist wohl Täbris im heutigen Aserbaidschan) eine Fahne, drang in einem schamarierten (eigentlich: zerbeulten, abgenutzten; hier: eine mit bunten Streifen und Materialien verzierte und innen gestreifte Kleidung) Kleid über die Bresche in die Festung ein, erstieg deren Wall und pflanzte auf demselben die Fahne auf, worauf die Festung bald genommen wurde, da der kommandierende General gerufen hatte, dass man dem schamarierten Kleid, welches Johann Baptist trug, nacheilen solle. Von der Beschreibung dieses Kleides erhielt derselbe den Beinamen Chamaré. Er vermählte sich 1527 mit einer Freiin von du Bois, und sein Sohn Johann († 20. August 1648), der als spanischer Obristen-Leutnant in der Schlacht bei Lens in Artois sein Leben endete, setzte zuvor das Geschlecht fort.

Johanns Enkel, Leonhard († 1684), königlich spanischer Oberst, vermählte sich 1645 mit Klara Katharina Maria, einer Tochter des Grafen Johann T’Serclaes von Tilly und fiel bei der Belagerung von Luxemburg. Der Sohn desselben, Johann Baptist († 11. Oktober 1701 in Soncino), trat 1675 in k. k. Kriegsdienste, vermählte sich 1699 mit Johanna Rosina von Fritsch auf Dobigost und starb als k. k. Oberstleutnant gleich zu Beginn des Spanischen Erbfolgekriegs im Gefecht von Soncino.

Johann Baptists Sohn Johann Ludwig (* 12. Juli 1701; † 28. April 1765) wurde von Kaiser Kaiser Karl VI. am 2. Oktober 1727 in den Freiherren- und von Kaiserin Maria Theresia am 4. September 1751 in den Grafenstand erhoben. 1745 hatte er von Anton Zaruba Graf von Hustiran die Herrschaft Pottenstein gekauft. Er vermählte sich dreimal: mit Josefine Charlotte Freiin von Seydlitz, sodann mit Maria Augusta Gräfin von Kalckreuth und schließlich am 12. Februar 1737 mit Anna Barbara Freiin von Sannig († 26. Februar 1773). Der Graf starb als k. k. Geheimer Rat und Vizepräsident des Kommerzialkonsesses im Königreich Böhmen und hinterließ zwei Söhne, die zwei Äste bildeten.

Johann Sigismund aus der ersten Ehe, gründete die steirische Linie. Er war k. k. Kämmerer und erhielt das Indigenat in Ungarn am 14. September 1777 und heiratete 1762 Johanna Gräfin Keglevich de Buzin, die die Herrschaft Reka in die Ehe einbrachte. Das Paar hatte drei Söhne:

Das Haupt der steirischen Linie wurde danach Johann Nepomuk Joseph (* 8. August 1793; † 21. November 1857). Er war Herr der Herrschaft Süssenheim in der Steiermark und Reka, Szvedruscha und Ternovecz in Kroatien, k. k. Kämmerer und Generalmajor (16. Januar 1849), Dienstkämmerer bei der Erzherzogin Elisabeth, Witwe des Erzherzogs Ferdinand Karl Victor d’Este. Er heiratete am 2. April 1827 Katharina Gräfin von Erdödy (* 15. September 1802; †1838).

Johann Anton (* 15. November 1737; † 17. Februar 1808) aus der dritten Ehe gründete die böhmische Linie. Er war k. k. Kämmerer und verehelichte sich am 28. Februar 1764 in erster Ehe mit Johanna Maria Gräfin von Waldstein (* 4. Juli 1722; † 26. März 1792), in zweiter am 2. Oktober 1792 mit Marie Anna Freiin Dobrženský von Dobrženitz (* 5. August 1763 in Wien; † 16. Dezember 1826 in Prag).

Das Haupt der böhmischen Linie wurde später sein Enkel Johann Ludwig (* 8. August 1798). Er war k. k. Kämmerer, Herr der Herrschaft Neuschloss (Böhmen), vermählt am 25. April 1826 mit Maria Hedwig Gräfin von Schaffgotsch (* 1. November 1805 in Breslau; † 30. Juni 1875 in Neuschloss). Aus dieser Ehe stammten fünf Söhne: Johann Ludwig (* 5. Juli 1828; † 1846), Johann Friedrich (* 3. Dezember 1829 in Neuschloss; † 5. März 1916 in Wien), k. k. Offizier, der Parlamentarier der Zentrumspartei Johann Anton (1834–1895), Johann Felix (* 18. März 1836 in Neuschloss; † 21. Juni 1906 in Semmering) und Johann Alfred (* 22. Juni 1837 in Neuschloss; † 20. Dezember 1913 in Salzburg) verheiratet mit Amalie Johanna Gräfin von Strasoldo (3. November 1848 in Peuma; † 23. September 1926 in Salzburg). Der Bruder des Grafen Johann Ludwig war Graf Johann Anton (* 6. April 1804 in Pottenstein; † 31. August 1849 ebenda), Herr der Allodialgüter Pottenstein, Langen-Chotta und Slowan. Er ehelichte am 5. September 1829 Anna Gräfin von Woracziczky von Pabienitz (* 5. März 1814).

Mit dem Tod Johann Ludwigs (* 6. Juni 1887 in Salzburg; † 12. Mai 1972 in Maria-Anzbach), dem Enkel des Johann Alfred und der Amalie Gräfin Strasoldo, erlosch das Geschlecht der Grafen von Harbuval und Chamaré im Mannesstamm.

1751: Quadrierter Schild mit einem breiten, über den ganzen Schild gezogenen roten Pfahl, in welchem auf grünem Hügel ein geharnischter, in der Rechten ein blankes Schwert schwingender, die Linke in die Seite stemmender Ritter steht. 1. in Blau ein goldener, sechseckiger Stern. 2. in Silber auf grünem Hügel ein einwärtsgekehrter blauer Greif, welcher in den Vorderpranken einen goldenen Stern hält. 3. in Silber auf grünem Hügel ein einwärtsgekehrter, roter Löwe, welcher in den Vorderpranken eine über den Kopf nach rechts wehende, blaue, mit silbernen Querstreifen eingefasste Fahne trägt, wobei die Fahne neuerlich auch als eine rote, mit zwei silbernen Querstreifen bezeichnete Standarte an goldener Lanze aufgeführt wird. 4. von Rot und Silber in 7 Reihen, je zu 3 Feldern, geschachtet. Über der Grafenkrone stehen drei gekrönte Helme. Aus dem rechten Helm wächst der Löwe von 3. mit der Fahne, aus dem mittleren der geharnischte Mann des Schildpfahles empor, und auf dem linken steht der Greif des 2. Feldes mit dem Stern. Die Helmdecken sind rechts rot und silbern, links silbern und blau.

SS Laura (1908)

Laura was an 842 GRT coaster that was built in 1908 by Kjøbenhavns Flydedok & Skibsværft, Copenhagen, Denmark for Danish owners. She was captured in 1917 by UC-79 and passed to German owners as a prize of war.

A sale in 1935 saw her renamed Sylt. She was seized by the Allies in May 1945, passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and was renamed Empire Continent., then Master Nicholas following a sale in 1947. In 1952, she was sold to Greece and renamed Soussana II. A further sale in 1955 saw her renamed Georgios Matsas.

On 18 April 1955, she struck a reef off Muros, Spain and sank. Although Georgios Matsas was refloated two months later, she was declared a constructive total loss. Despite this, she was sold to Panama, repaired and renamed Sur, serving until 1965 when she was scrapped.

The ship was built in 1908 by Kjøbenhavns Flydedok & Skibsværft, Copenhagen.

As built, the ship was 211 feet 2 inches (64.36 m) long, with a beam of 30 feet 7 inches (9.32 m). She had a depth of 13 feet 1 inch (3.99 m) and a draught of 16 feet 2 inches (4.93 m). As built the ship had a GRT of 787. She was 736 NRT, 1,135 DWT.

The ship was propelled by a triple expansion steam engine, which had cylinders of 14 inches (36 cm), 23 inches (58 cm) and 37 inches (94 cm) diameter by 24 inches (61 cm) stroke. The engine was built by Kjøbenhavns Flydedok & Skibsværft.

Laura was built for A/S Dampskibs Selskab Vesterhavet. She was operated under the management of J. Lauritzen A/S, Esbjerg. The Code Letters NRDG were allocated. On 28 April 1917 she was on a voyage from Göteborg, Sweden to Hull, United Kingdom, when she was captured by the German U-boat UC-79 in the Skagerrak at and taken as a prize of war.

In 1935, Laura was sold to Wendenhof Reederei GmbH, Wismar and was renamed Sylt. In 1940, the ship was requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine. On 21 July 1943, she sailed from Bodø, Norway under escort from the vorpostenboot V 5717 Fritz Homann for a port to the north. In May 1945, Sylt was seized by the Allies at Trondheim, Norway. She was passed to the MoWT and renamed Empire Continent. Her port of registry was changed to London. The Code Letters GQBN and United Kingdom Official Number 180805 were allocated. She was placed under the management of G F Cuthbert Brown & Co Ltd. Empire Continent was recorded as 210 feet 0 inches (64.01 m) long, with a beam of 30 feet 7 inches (9.32 m), a depth of 13 feet 4 inches (4.06 m) and a draught of approximately 14 feet 0 inches (4.27 m).

In 1947, Empire Continent was sold to A G Tsavliris Ltd, London and was renamed Master Nicolas. In 1952, she was sold to N T Papadatos, Greece and was renamed Soussana II. In 1955, she was sold to Loucas G Matsas, Piraeus, and renamed Georgios Matsas. On 18 April 1955, she struck rocks off Muros, Spain and subsequently sank. The ship was refloated on 17 June but was declared to be a constructive total loss. Georgios Matsas was sold and repaired. She was then sold to Dabaco & Co, Panama and renamed Sur, serving until she was scrapped in Santander, Spain in August 1965.

Mary Ann Knight

Mary Anne Knight (7 September 1776 – 1851) was an English miniature-painter, specialising in miniatures of children and babies. She was closely associated with Andrew Plimer, who married her sister.

Knight was born on 7 September 1776 at Birchin Lane, London, the daughter of Frances Woodcock and John Knight, a City of London merchant. She was one of ten children of the family.

At the age of twenty-six she began to paint portraits in order to assist her parents, who had fallen upon hard times, and she received instruction in miniature work from Andrew Plimer. It is stated that it was through her coming for lessons that he made the acquaintance of her elder sister Joanna Louisa, whom he afterwards married. He seems to have retained a considerable affection for Mary Ann, and she spent much of her time at his house. Although she was receiving skills that Plimer himself had been indulgently given by his own master Richard Cosway. She painted portraits from 1802 down to 1836, a period of thirty-four years, and a list of her works, extracted from her note-books, are appended in Williamson (1903)

She kept a very careful account of her earnings, and records that she made the sum of £5,171 9s. 8d., being an average of 150 guineas a year throughout the above period. At first, however, the sums which she obtained for her work were very small, ranging from two to four guineas for a portrait. Occasionally for some years she was able to get five, and even six guineas for a larger portrait, but the average price continued lower than that. Gradually, however, her prices crept up, and at the end of 1805 she was receiving nine guineas for the larger and seven guineas for the smaller size, and ten guineas for portraits of children, with which she was known to be particularly successful. In 1809 ten guineas seems to have been her usual price, and in 1815 this became fifteen guineas, occasionally rising to twenty, and, in a few instances, even to thirty guineas for the portrait of a child.

Miss Knight began to exhibit at the Royal Academy in 1803, and sent in all thirty pictures to that gallery, exhibiting also two unnamed pictures at the Old Water-Colour Society. She ceased work in 1836, having recorded altogether 696 portraits, at an average price of 7.5 guineas apiece. Certain portraits appearing in the Royal Academy catalogues are not to be found in her list, in which there are many curious omissions. Some years have hardly any entries given to them, and nothing at all actually appears marked for the years 1818, 1820, and 1832, although Academy catalogues show her exhibiting in 1818.

She resided at one time at Hampstead, but it is not known exactly where, as the word Hampstead is the only address which she gives on her letters. At another time she was at Wicken, Stony Stratford, where her parents were residing. In 1813 her brother in Philadelphia wrote to her at her studio in Old Bond Street. Later on she was again at Hampstead, and towards the end of her life she lived at Grove End Road, St. John’s Wood, and there in 1851 she died, at the age of eighty-five.

Comparatively few of her portraits have been identified, although many of them still exist, either attributed to the wrong artists, or marked in catalogues as by unknown hands. The most notable collection of her portraits is a series at Belvoir Castle, representing various members of the Manners family. Another two portraits are of the dramatist Joanne Baillie and the philanthropist Robert Owen are in the National Galleries of Scotland. The picture of Baillie may be a copy as the sitter allowed only one copy to be made as she would not permit an engraving to be made but one of these is in the gallery. The fate of the preparatory sketches she made for these paintings and many those of other people such as Lady Caroline Lamb, her own and the Byron family are now unknown.

The success which Miss Knight obtained in her portraits of children appears to have been the result of her engaging charm, quiet soft voice, merry vivacious manner, and great kindliness of disposition. All these qualities enabled her to appeal to her juvenile sitters, and they were ever ready to listen to her stories and to sit to her for as long as she desired to have them. It is certain that she was able to catch their arch and roguish expression, to represent them as real children, and to capture in her rapid and sketchy portraits excellent likenesses of the little ones with whom she was so popular.

Her portraits are generally of large size, and as a rule pale, even somewhat washy in colour, but there are cases in which she has employed a dark and rich scheme of colouring (such as in the portraits of Lady Bagot and Lady Fanny Ponsonby belonging to the Plimer family), and in such instances she was very partial to the use of a rich purple, resembling the bloom of a grape. According to Williamson, it is unfortunate that she was at times influenced by the affected custom of that period, which delighted to depict the children as angels, or in classical attire. Had she confined herself exclusively to genuine portraiture she would have been far more successful, and there is no doubt that her best portraits are those in which she did not aim at any representation of allegorical allusion or classical detail, but was content to paint the child as he was, in a natural attitude.

Her drawing, according to Williamson, is unsatisfactory; the defects in the drawing of arms or of the neck are those of her teacher, and can be found in almost all his best works.

There are a few portraits by her in existence in which she set herself to copy the style of Anthony Stewart, a noted painter of babies at the time, and the portraits which she executed of the infant children of Lady Denbigh are good examples of this special experiment. They possess many of the characteristics of Stewart’s work.

Dharmajivandasji Swami

Shastri Shree Dharmajivandasji swami (June 18, 1901 – February 5, 1988), commonly known as ‚Shastriji Maharaj‘, was a Hindu saint, social worker and founder of Swaminarayan Gurukul. His former name was Arjan. He established Swaminarayan Gurukul at Rajkot with seven students in a small room in 1947. During his lifetime gurukul was spread to the rajkot, junagadh and ahmedabad. And after his death his followers made branches at Surat, Hyderabad, Taravada, Navsari, Vidyanagar, Narmada, Mumbai and Bangalore. Its international branches include Dallas (Texas, United States) and Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic).

Shastriji Maharaj Shri Dharmajivandasji Swami, the founder of the Gurukul tradition was born on 18th June, 1901, the auspicious day of the Rathayatra of Shree Jagannath Bhagawan of Puri, in the Taravada village of Amreli District in Gujarat, India and was named as Arjan. He was very brilliant and studious. He had natural inclination for spiritual learning and reading of religious scriptures. Since his childhood, he had a natural attraction towards saints, as he aspired to attend all spiritual gatherings. Even at the cost of sleep and food, he used to go and serve these saints at every opportunity he had. One such occasion changed his life forever. He was privileged to receive divine blessings from Saint Shree Balmukundadasji Swami. This created a spiritual fire in his heart and a calling in his soul that shaped the journey for the rest of his divine life. Being attracted by the pure and virtuous life led by the saints of Swaminarayan Sampradaya, Arjan started regularly attending Swaminarayan Satsangs. At the tender age of 16, Arjan was convinced that the pure life of the Swaminarayan Saints was the optimal method of supreme spiritual realization and salvation and became a Saint. Arjan now became Sadhu Dharmajivandas. Seeing Gurukul and saints imparting Sanskrit and Religious education to young students on his pilgrimage on foot on the Himalayas, he realized the message of Bhagwan Shree Swaminarayan to preserve and propagate ‘Sadvidya’ all over the world. There he got the inner inspiration to start some constructive and service activities based on the broad and benevolent message of Bhagwan Shree Swaminarayan. Coming back to Saurashtra he established Shree Swaminarayan Gurukul in the year of India’s independence i.e. in 1947-48 at Rajkot – Gujarat. Shree Dharmajivandasji Swami led a very simple life of devotion, compassion, spiritual inquest and strong righteous principles. This lifestyle had a major influence on his disciples as well. He always emphasized the path of Bhakti and Dharma. Social welfare activities and betterment of the society were the pillars of his mission. He practiced a vow called Ayachak Vrat i.e., never to ask anyone for any money as donation. He had firm faith in God and believed that all the benevolent activities of the Gurukul should run only with the voluntary donations of the people inspired by the Almighty. This principle is still practiced as a vow by this Gurukul in all its activities. Success for him was nothing other than the betterment of the society. Success for him was not a destination, but journey. In fact, his life became the source of inspiration to so many saints of other sects, that they too started creating huge institutions for education and social welfare activities. He was a great successor of Gunatit tradition, a reformer of spiritual activities and Saint-life.

Arche de la Défense

Arche de la défense (Grande Arche de la Fraternité eller bare La Grande Arche) er et monument i form av en triumfbue i kontor- og forretningskvarteret La Défense vest for Paris. Monumentet er et verk av den danske arkitekten Johan Otto von Spreckelsen.

I 1982 tok den franske presidenten François Mitterrand initiativ til å utlyse en arkitektkonkurranse. Konkurransen ble vunnet av Spreckelsen og den danske sivilingeniøren Erik Reitzel. Deres prosjekt var en moderne utgave av Triumfbuen: et monument for menneskeheten og de humanistiske idealer i stedet for militære triumfer.

Byggingen startet i 1985. Spreckelsen forlot prosjektet sommeren 1986 og overlot sitt arkitektarbeide til sin partner, den franske arkitekten Paul Andreu. Reitzel fortsatte sitt arbeide inntil ferdigstillelsen i 1989.

Arche de la défense ble innviet i juli 1989 med store festligheter og et G7-toppmøte i monumentets taketasje. Samtidig var det militærparader og opptog som markerte tohundredåret for den franske revolusjon.

Arche de la défense er 108 meter bred, har en høyde på 110 meter og dybden er 112 meter. Den har en betongramme dekket av glass og Carraramarmor fra Italia og ble bygget av et fransk entreprenørfirma.

Meningen er at monumentet skal avslutte monumentalaksen Axe historique som går gjennom Paris. Arche de la défense er dreiet i en vinkel på 6,33° i forhold til aksen. Med en metrostasjon, en RER-stasjon og en motorvei plassert direkte under bygningen var vinkelen den eneste måten man kunne gi plass for bygningens 12 gigantiske fundamenter. Dreiningen ble foreslått av ingeniøren allerede i konkurransefasen og akseptert av arkitekten ettersom den ville fremheve monumentets dybde og skape symmetri med det tilsvarende vinklede Louvre i aksens motsatte ende.

De to sidene av Arche de la défense er hjemsted for regjeringskontorer. Taketasjen har et areal på mer enn 1 hektar og inneholder et utstillingssenter. Byggverket har et utvendig heistårn av rustfri stålstenger hvor det er 4 heiskabiner i glass og stål.

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Sifan Hassan

Sifan Hassan (født 1993 i Nazret) er en etiopiskfødt friidrettsutøver som representerer Nederland. Hun konkurrerer hovedsakelig i friidrett, men har også U23-gull terrengløp fra 2013. Hun vant 1500 meter både ved EM i 2014 og EM innendørs i 2015.

Hun kom til Nederland som flyktning i 2008, da hun var 15 år gammel, og begynte med løping mens hun studerte for å bli sykepleier. Hun ble nederlandsk statsborger i november 2011.

Hassan deltok ved Eindhoven halvmaraton i 2011, og vant dette løpet på tiden 1:17.10. Hun kom også på 2. plass i to terrengløp dette året; Sylvestercross og Mol Lotto Cross Cup. Året etter vant hun begge disse terrengløpene. Hun vant også 300 meter ved Leiden Gouden Spike-stevnet i 2012.

Hun fikk sitt gjennombrudd i 2013. Hun vant 800 meter ved det internasjonale stevnet KBC Night of Athletics, og hun vant 1500 meter ved både Nijmegen Global Athletics og Golden Spike Ostrava. Hun deltok også ved Diamond League 2013, der hun kom på 2. plass på 800 meter ved Athletissima, med ny personlig rekord på 4:03,73. Hun kom på 3. plass på 3000 meter ved DN Galan, med tiden 8:32,53, som var ny personlig rekord og den fjerde raskeste tiden i verden på dette tidspunktet.

Hennes første konkurranse som nederlandsk statsborger var EM i terrengløp 2013 i desember. Her vant hun 6 km i U23-klassen, og bidro til at Nederland kom på 3. plass i lagkonkurransen. Samme vinter vant hun også terrengløpene Warandeloop og Lotto Cross Cup Brussels. Hassans første innendørskonkurranse var Weltklasse in Karlsruhe i februar 2014, her satte hun ny årsbeste i verden på 3000 meter, med tiden 8:45,32. Senere satte hun ny nederlandsk innendørsrekord på 3000 meter ved Birmingham Indoor Grand Prix, med tiden 4:05,34. Ved EM i friidrett 2014 fikk hun to medaljer; hun vant 1500 meter, og kom på 2. plass på 5000 meter, kun slått av svenske Meraf Bahta. Hun vant også to løp i Diamond League 2014; i Paris og Glasgow.

Ved EM i friidrett innendørs 2015 i Praha vant hun 1500 meter, halvannet sekund foran polske Angelika Cichocka. I Diamond League 2015 vant hun 1500 meter ved British Grand Prix i Birmingham og Athletissima i Lausanne.

1969: Jaroslava Jehličková | 1971: Karin Burneleit | 1974: Gunhild Hoffmeister | 1978: Giana Romanova | 1982: Olga Dvirna | 1986: Ravilija Agletdinova | 1990: Snezana Pajkić | 1994: Ljudmila Rogatsjova | 1998: Svetlana Masterkova | 2002: Süreyya Ayhan | 2006: Tatjana Tomasjova | 2010: Nuria Fernández | 2012: Aslı Çakır Alptekin | 2014: Sifan Hassan | 2016: Angelika Cichocka

Alexandre Rey

Alexandre Rey (* 22. September 1972 in Sion) ist ein ehemaliger Schweizer Fussballspieler.

Rey begann seine Karriere im Jahr 1990 beim FC Sion, mit dem er 1991 den Schweizer Cup und 1992 die Nationalliga A gewann. 1994 wechselte er zum FC Basel. 1996 ging er zurück zu Sion. Im Oktober 1997 wechselte er zu Servette Genf. Mit Servette wurde er 1999 Schweizer Meister. In der Winterpause der Saison 2000/01 wechselte er zum FC Luzern, welchen er in der Winterpause der Saison 2001/02 Richtung Neuchâtel Xamax verliess. Mit Xamax nahm er 2003 am Cupfinale teil, unterlag dem FC Basel jedoch mit 0:6. 2006 beendete er seine Karriere. Heute arbeitet er in der Verwaltung von Xamax.

Rey bestritt ausserdem 18 Spiele für die Schweizer Fussballnationalmannschaft. Dabei gelangen ihm fünf Tore, drei davon im WM-Qualifikationsspiel zur Weltmeisterschaft 2006 gegen die Färöer.

Spieler des Jahres:
1973: Odermatt | 1975: Barberis | 1976: Kuhn | 1977: Pfister | 1978: Elsener | 1979: Barberis | 1980: Barberis | 1981: Lüdi | 1982: Sulser | 1983: Favre | 1984: Hermann | 1985: Hermann / Osterwalder | 1986: Hermann | 1987: Hermann | 1988: Hermann | 1989: Nadig | 1990: Egli | 1991: Knup | 1992: Brigger | 1993: Sforza | 1994: Bickel | 1995: Subiat | 1996: Türkyılmaz | 1997: Türkyılmaz | 1998: Türkyılmaz

Ausländischer Spieler des Jahres:
1975: Katić | 1976: Katić | 1977: Nielsen | 1978: Chivers | 1979: Jerković | 1980: Hamberg | 1981: Kok | 1982: Jerković | 1983: Jerković | 1984: Nogués | 1985: Herberth | 1986: Lunde | 1987: Prytz | 1988: Eriksen | 1989: Rummenigge | 1990: Zamorano | 1991: Gorter | 1992: Dobrowolski | 1993: Sonny Anderson | 1994: Élber | 1995: Aleksandrow | 1996: Moldovan | 1997: Moldovan | 1998: Nonda

Credit Suisse Player of the Year:
1998: Wicky | 1999: Sforza | 2000: Sesa | 2001: Henchoz | 2002: Henchoz | 2003: Stiel | 2004: Frei | 2005: Frei | 2006: Senderos | 2007: Frei | 2008: Barnetta | 2009: Benaglio | 2010: Huggel | 2011: Shaqiri | 2012: Shaqiri | 2013: Benaglio | 2014: Rodríguez 2015: Lichtsteiner

Axpo Player of the Year:
1998: Rehn | 1999: Rey | 2000: Amoah | 2001: Chapuisat | 2002: M. Yakin | 2003: H. Yakin | 2004: Chapuisat | 2005: Cabanas | 2006: Delgado | 2007: Petrić | 2008: H. Yakin | 2009: Doumbia | 2010: Doumbia | 2011: Frei | 2012: Frei

Raiffeisen Super League Best Player:
2013: Salah | 2014: Gashi | 2015: Embolo

Nationalliga / Nationalliga A

1934: Kielholz | 1935: Bösch | 1936: Jäggi | 1937: Frigerio | 1938: Monnard | 1939: Artimovics | 1940: Aeby | 1941: Frigerio | 1942: Frigerio | 1943: Amadò | 1944: Andres | 1945: Friedländer | 1946: Friedländer | 1947: Amadò / Blaser | 1948: Righetti | 1949: Fatton | 1950: Fatton | 1951: Friedländer | 1952: Hügi | 1953: Hügi / Meier | 1954: Hügi | 1955: Mauron | 1956: Vukosavljević | 1957: Kauer | 1958: Wechselberger | 1959: Meier | 1960: Schneider | 1961: Robbiani | 1962: Fatton | 1963: von Burg | 1964: Desbiolles | 1965: Blättler / Kerkhoffs | 1966: Blättler | 1967: Blättler / Künzli | 1968: Künzli | 1969: Peters | 1970: Künzli | 1971: Müller | 1972: Dimmeler / Dörfel | 1973: Hitzfeld / Grahn | 1974: Jeandupeux | 1975: Katic | 1976: Risi | 1977: Cuccinotta | 1978: Künzli | 1979: Risi | 1980: Sulser | 1981: Risi | 1982: Sulser | 1983: Brigger | 1984: Bregy | 1985: Cina

Super League

1986: Thychosen | 1987: Eriksen | 1988: Eriksen | 1989: Rummenigge | 1990: Zamorano | 1991: Zuffi | 1992: Molnar | 1993: Anderson | 1994: Élber | 1995: Aleksandrov | 1996: Aleksandrov / Moldovan | 1997: Moldovan | 1998: Nonda | 1999: Rey | 2000: Amoah | 2001: Chapuisat / Giménez | 2002: Giménez / Núñez | 2003: Núñez | 2004: Chapuisat | 2005: Giménez | 2006: Keita | 2007: Petrić | 2008: Yakin | 2009: Doumbia | 2010: Doumbia | 2011: Frei | 2012: Frei | 2013: Scarione | 2014: Gashi | 2015: Gashi | 2016: Dabbur

Mongolian legislative election, 2008

(Chingeltei)

Sanjaagiin Bayar
People’s Revolutionary

Sanjaagiin Bayar
People’s Revolutionary

Parliamentary elections were held in Mongolia on 29 June 2008. A total of 356 candidates ran for the 76 seats in the State Great Khural. According to official results published on 14 July, at least 39 seats were won by the ruling Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP), and at least 25 seats by the main opposition party, the Democrats (DP). Ten seats remained subject to possible recounts.

Members of the State Great Khural were elected from multi-seat constituencies in a Plurality-at-large system, with two to four seats per aimag or (in Ulaanbaatar) düüreg. Previous elections had single-seat constituencies, and the new, more complicated voting system was reported to have led to a delay in vote counting.

Of the 76 seats, 20 were elected from Ulaanbaatar, and the other 56 were elected from the aimags. Mongolian voter registration is coupled with civil registration.[citation needed] Vote counting was manually done by hands and was not publicly done,[citation needed] and results of individual polling stations are not published.[citation needed] After the 2004 legislative elections had been contested in some constituencies, Mongolian voters now have their thumbs marked after casting their vote.[citation needed]

311 candidates from 11 parties and one coalition, plus 45 independent candidates, were running for election, only 28 of them being incumbent MPs. Both the DP and the MPRP promised cash payouts in case of an election win.[citation needed] The DP promised 1,000,000 MNT (about 800 USD) per person in case of an election win. After first denouncing the idea of such payouts, the MPRP changed course and promised 1,500,000 MNT per person.[citation needed] Other issues were inflation and mining. As in previous elections, there were instances of candidates making monetary payments and other gifts to lure voters.

According to results published on 14 July, the MPRP won at least 39 seats, the DP won at least 25, at least one seat was going to the Civic Will Party, and three seats were won by independent candidates. However, results from three constituencies (Khentii, Dornod, and Bayangol) were delayed. On 20 August, final results from Khentii were officially published, raising the number of MPRP seats to at least 42. Turnout was 74.3%, considerably lower than the 82% of the 2004 elections.

After intermediate results published on 30 June showed MPRP victory, Democratic Party chairman Elbegdorj declared on 1 July that the elections were rigged and that his party would not accept the results. In a press conference held on 7 July, DP politicians Dambyn Dorligjav, Zandaakhuugiin Enkhbold and Lamjavyn Gündalai declared that there had been massive irregularities with voter registration. Some of their claims were later repudiated by the central registry office. Other allegations were irregularities in the counting process, and voter bribery.[citation needed]

For illegally using private documents of voters such as duplicating names of voters by (publishing duplicate IDs and false IDs with the names of dead people and so on) in 2008 parliamentary elections, L.Amarsanaa (MPRP), former chairman of State General Registration Authority was investigated by the Independent Authority Against Corruption and charged in September 2008.

On 1 July a peaceful gathering started in Sukhbaatar Square organized by the leaders of some of the smaller parties that took part in the elections. Eventually a large crowd gathered, mainly of young men, surrounding the adjacent MPRP Headquarters. The group started throwing rocks at the building and eventually advancing on it. Smaller police force responded with batons, water cannons, tear gas, rubber bullets, and live ammunition. In the evening fire started in the MPRP headquarters. Not enough measures to stop the riot or extinguish the fire were taken by the authority. Around midnight local time, after simply watching the live broadcast of the riot whole day on television channels, President Nambaryn Enkhbayar declared a state of emergency to be in effect for the following four days. Armored Personnel Carriers were deployed to the streets of Ulaanbaatar, a night curfew and a media blackout were declared.

Five people, all of them civilians, were killed during the state of emergency: four were shot, and one apparently died from carbon monoxide poisoning. The Mongolian Minister of Justice estimated 220 civilians and 108 service members were injured. Amnesty International raised concerns over the use of „unnecessary and excessive force“ by the police.) Approximately 700 people were later arrested suspected to be being protesters, of whom 140, including 13 minors and 3 women, have been sentenced to 2–7 years in prison as of 31 October 2008.

On 15 and 19 August, ten police officers were arrested and charged in connection with the shootings in the night of 1 and 2 July. On 20 August, relatives of these arrested officers organized a protest demonstration on Sükhbaatar Square.

On 18 July Democratic Party chairman Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj said that the DP would boycott the opening session of the parliament on 23 July. He also said that he was prepared to resign as DP Chairman if the 200 protesters still being held by the police are not released and the political crisis did not end. However, the DP members were present in the opening session, with many of its members criticizing the Chairman of the General Elections Committee, and the way the elections were held. After Elbegdorj gave his party’s position, members of the DP went out of the parliament. As a result, the new members of the parliament were not sworn in.

On 28 August, most of the DP representatives in the new State Great Khural (the Parliament) decided to attend the parliament, and all but Elbegdorj were sworn in. On 11 September, S. Bayar was elected as Prime Minister of a coalition government between MPRP and DP. Elbegdorj finally was sworn in on the same day.

The members from Dornod (two MPRP, one DP) were sworn in on 16 September 2008. The members from Bayangol (2 MPRP, 1 DP, 1 Civic Coalition) were announced on 9 October 2008.

On 2 September 2008, Elbegdorj resigned as the head of the Democratic Party as he said. Norovyn Altankhuyag was elected by the Democratic Party’s National Consultative Committee as the next chairman, and the Democratic Party entered a coalition government with the MPRP. On September 12, Elbegdorj was the only member of parliament who voted against Sanjaagiin Bayar as Mongolia’s new prime minister. Bayar was the chairman of MPRP and Prime Minister who handled 2008 election rigging, riot and measures following riot including the police shooting to civilians that resulted in killing four people and wounded a dozen.

24 May 2009, nearly a year after the crisis, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj made victory in the 2009 presidential election over incumbent President Enkhbayar.

News related to Mongolia declares state of emergency after violent protests, five people killed at Wikinews